- Clive on The Books of Blood
- Sunday, November 18, 2012
- Clive on The Books of Blood
- Full text of "Rue Morgue (Nov Dec )"
I give little thought toward theatre, but Barker is a fan in real life, and it shows through his words as he convincingly weaves his web on yours truly. I also ended up feeling the nostalgia, the magic. This anthology deserves to be read and known, Barker did a great job creating unease and clearly has a poetic license to boot. View all 3 comments. So I have been meaning to read more of Clive Barker's stories this year, so I hope to get to the rest of the volumes before Halloween. Volume 1 showcases how the books of blood were created a creepy origin story and we have one of the characters who starts to read the stories that were left behind.
I had some favorites, and some that I scratched my head at and moved on. I should maybe have given it 3 stars, but heck it's Clive Barker so I rounded it up to 4 stars. The story itself reminded me a little bit of Hell House though what comes after is pure Barker. What was really cool about this story though is that it is the origin of all of the stories that come after. What happens to the fake psychic is that his own skin is literally used by the dead to tell their stories.
And all of the stories afterwards are stories that are written on his skin. A regular office worker named Leo who comes to New York is slowly becoming dissatisfied by what he sees around him. While that is going on, there are reports of a butcher in New York killing people on the subway. The story then transitions to a man named Mahogany who is definitely not a nice guy at all.
We get inside his head a bit and the racism that lives there was enough to make me go ick a few times. I did not feel bad at all with what happens in the end. Certain parts of the story are really gross though. It takes a while to get going. But you have a man named Jack that the residents of Hell are very interested in claiming. I re-read it twice too, but I feel like I was missing some important context. I also am now kind of scared of pigs. So there's that. I want to know how some of the characters even came to be, why the heck they were so focused on acting, and why in the world would the dead even be interested in a play.
It was a strange story, just needed a bit more oomph to it. It was so strange and bizarre. I think it sort of reminded me a bit of Nightbreed, but that was about it. I I don't get why two cities would combine into two separate beings, and I don't get why one would then go mad. How did no one hear the thing moving or see it? It was a let down as the final story in this volume.
Oct 17, Kaustubh Dudhane rated it really liked it. Moreover, my expectations rose when the introduction was written by Mr. Ramsey Campbell. Let's do it in an organized way by taking one story at a time in the order they come up in the book. The Midnight Meat Train: The story is truly horrific and have a bit of acceptable gore. It is more of a thriller than a horror story. If you cannot stand in a slaughterhouse or in a butcher shop to buy mutton, you will find difficult to stop your bile rising in your throat.
Nothing to write more. If you insist view spoiler [this is a hilarious story. The author intended it to be a comic story and not a parody of some other one. Moreover, there are creepy and bullying teenagers. And the surprise element is superb here. I have felt that the story was dragged a bit and could have been ended earlier.
Now, it is one of least favorite stories. That's it! Read it! Story: 4. Although the stories were written in s, they are still fresh. And I believe Mr. Clive Barker is really underrated in India at least. I've tried reading Barker a couple of times and given up. Now I know that Barker has some hardcore fans and they're always shocked when I say I haven't liked anything I've read. When I tell them the titles I tried they are never surprised.
It appears I picked two of his weakest I had a voucher for a free audiobook so thought I'd give this one a go. This is the Barker I always hoped to find when I read his work. The guy that I know created Hellraiser and Candyman! I really, really enjoyed it. Some stories more than others, but that's normal. End result anyway is, I will definitely be trying out more Barker. Apr 19, Sarah rated it really liked it. To my total surprise I am giving this collection of stories four stars.
Not so with this book. Barker does a phenomenal job of making his stories unique and original. There was only one story that I felt was same ol' same ol'. View all 8 comments. Sep 09, Brandon Petry rated it it was amazing Shelves: own , xaug , , roadtrip , short-stories , audible , body-horror , how-d-you-do-that , boo , my-childhood.
And man does it hold up. Feb 28, Patrick rated it really liked it Shelves: book-series , reviewed. Currently, I'm reading Books contained in a single volume, but I wanted to review each book individually. So far, I am quite impressed by Clive Barker's collection of short macabre horror stories. I was a bit skeptical of reading them because I had watched a Hellraiser film which he directed and had thought that it was very poor in quality, story and acting. Luckily, I can say that his writing is much better. The book starts with a terrifying statement: "Everybody is a book of blood.
Wherev Currently, I'm reading Books contained in a single volume, but I wanted to review each book individually. Wherever we're opened, we're red. Red, read? The first story serves as the introduction to the series. It's aptly named "The Book of Blood. The story involves the dead doing very gruesome things to the living. I won't spoil it. This serves as the introduction to the upcoming stories.
Let me say that the method which he does this reminds me a lot of Douglas Clegg. The second, Midnight Meat Train, doesn't disappoint. It is somewhat of a murder mystery about a serial killer in New York. While it sounds like your average slasher story, the ending is somewhat disturbing and quite unexpected. Once again, I refuse to give away details.
The demon is metaphysical, intangible and, I believe, invisible within the household, but he can still find ways to torment the householders in various ways such as killing his cats and bringing the Christmas turkey to life. I found that scene really funny and entertaining. This one is entertaining throughout and has a fairly happy ending. Pig Blood Blues is a bit duller than the previous two, but still manages to thrill. It involves a cop named Redman and trying to find a missing boy named Hennessey, who is assumed to be dead.
The title is ironically named because pig becomes the name for the cop, while there is an actual pig in the story. Sex, Death and Starshine is the fourth story and probably the worst in the whole book. It starts off with an oral sex scene. It seems redundant and unnecessary at some points, especially when your story is starting off with one. This story was about actors and actresses in a theater which is scheduled to be closed down in soon time.
It involved a lot of drama and dialogue between the characters trying to salvage the theatre and perform their last show. Sadly, very little of this detail was interesting or entertaining. There was a brief horror scene at the end, but at that point, I had trouble paying attention to it because I was glad the story was over. To me, this is the only bad story within the first book and it is totally skippable. The last story is In the Hills, the Cities. This name may not make sense at first, but it will become clear after reading it.
Clive on The Books of Blood
To me, this story is another great example of horror writing at its finest. There are several passages that are intentionally vague so that the reader can ruminate on who or what Popovac and Pudojevo are. This final story is a very odd one, but also does a fine job of shocking the reader. Once again, this is my first time reading Clive Barker. May 24, Addy rated it it was amazing. I finally finished this and was sorry I waited because the last 2 stories I really enjoyed. Especially the one about the giant human mass which was just genius!
Just picturing it in my head was so much fun! Mick and Judd were very likable characters too. Highly recommend even if u are not a Barker fan. I'm so glad I have part 2 and 3. The text itself contains a meager five technically, six stories but for what it lacks in length, it certainly makes up in substance. The story itself actually gets 2. What fascinates me about Barker sometimes is the way you can tell by reading his stuff that he already knows that several horror tropes exist but every time he writes a story, he manages to do something new and imaginative with the genre.
And the ending, though not one of the best in the book, still offers something rather unusual. What they see in the hills is something that cannot be unseen. Honestly one of the most authentic horror stories I have ever read. A masterpiece of contemporary fiction in the purest sense.
One of those stories I think everybody should read at least once in their lifetime. Overall, a nice introduction to the author since this is the first time I have read Barker which has actually pushed me to purchase volumes Shelves: pulp-fiction. Occasionally I try to read some horror that is not written by HP Lovecraft. I think reading this, in High School, was the first time I had this experience. Actually, if I recall, I had already read the first story, "The Book of Blood" which serves as a kind of "wraparound" to this volume in Omni magazine. It was better as a standalone, actually.
Overall, the stories focus on pain and gore and the painful asp Occasionally I try to read some horror that is not written by HP Lovecraft. Overall, the stories focus on pain and gore and the painful aspects of gore , and argue that pain can be a transcendental state, all pretty much standard Barker themes as I understand it. Two stand out for me: "The Midnight Meat Train" was interesting because so many of my own nightmares take place in the NYC subway system, and "Sex, Death, and Starshine" which is a title that burnt itself into my brain so that I can never forget it, although the only part of it I ever can remember is the first few lines - it's the combination of words in that order that I remember, like the guitar riff of a classic-rock song whose name you've never caught.
Overall, I think the association between Barker and classic rock is pretty appropriate - neither really has anything to say, but you can't avoid them, and they are often better than the alternative when you're stuck in the middle of nowhere with nothing else for company. The Books of Blood are probably the best things Barker has ever written. These stories are not just or always scary, but extremely imaginative.
In this collection, the story "In the Hills, the Cities" certainly stretched my brain. Nov 21, Jean-marcel rated it really liked it. Comments on the entirety of the series, followed by some thoughts on the stories in this individual entry: When I first read these books -- all of them, within a short space of time -- way back in , I admit to being slightly biased against them. I'm not totally sure what it was. Maybe I was just too obsessed with Lovecraft, Clark Ashton Smith, and Arthur machen, and thought Clive Barker was some tepid mainstream nonsense by comparison.
I remember having a friend in the 90s who spoke very disp Comments on the entirety of the series, followed by some thoughts on the stories in this individual entry: When I first read these books -- all of them, within a short space of time -- way back in , I admit to being slightly biased against them. I remember having a friend in the 90s who spoke very disparagingly of his work, too. I did enjoy the Hellraiser film though, and that was probably the only reason I shoved my and ploughed ahead with him.
I also remember reading some Stephen King around the same time, and not feeling too much snobbery. So I'm actually a bit hard-pressed to explain why I was a little self-conscious about reading these, like they were the sort of thing I'd want to hide under my desk as the schoolteacher walked by.
Well, it's now fifteen years later and I have, shall we say, quite a bit more reading experience. While he may at times be unsubtle, ole' Clive isn't really all that trashy, except when he wants to revel in it. Yeah, most things are "signposted", and the gore, and even the sex, is a little over-the-top at times, but he's not without a literary bone or two and when he goes extravagant, he does it with a big, completely self-assured grin on his face. Lest you doubt me, the epigraph at the beginning of the first volume is a goddamn pun! No kidding. In these stories, spread across six volumes, you'll find tales of depravity, madness, vengeance, ancient evil, sexual psychosis and -- lots and lots of meat!
Human meat, rotting meat, maggoty meat, delicious meat. What is it with Barker and meat? Is he a vegetarian, I wonder? Actually though, it's a pretty good "horror subject", for quite a few reasons, when you think about it. And strange as it may seem, amongst all this craziness, you'll also find beauty, and even happiness.
Not only that, but there's a real sense of -- I guess you could call it "justice" -- in Barker's work. Unlike with "true horror", the awful people here often do get the payback they deserve; the wronged people go through horror and hell but usually end up in some way free of their former tethers. It might not be true horror, but it's pretty satisfying most of the time. It's a framing device for the entire series of six little books, which only returns at the very end. Not very important you can read any of these in any order you choose, skipping around as you like but still, rather neat.
It's one of those stories that is supposed to make new Yorkers feel terrible about their city. There's something old and stinking and rotting beneath the conduits and tunnels and sewers. It's a dark megapolisomancy at work, I tell you! A likeable story, this one, even though it lacks the kind of character development necessary to suggest how Kaufman transitions from timid and slavish office worker to He seems to accept everything rather quickly, even without any aforementioned taste for the macabre.
By the way, not that it matters much, but i don't think Clive is terribly convincing at writing Americans, at least not at this point. And I sure as shit never heard a yankee say "tannoy". For some reason I had it in my head that Jack spent the entire story apparently in a state of breezy obliviousness, until the last moment revealed his cards. It isn't like that; the story makes pretty clear early on that jack knows exactly what is going on with the yattering. A fun story, but somehow the fact that the ending wasn't a surprise twist after all disappointed me this time round.
Interesting how over the years we can remember stories differently than how they were written. I did feel sorry for the yattering, though. There's definitely a tradition of evil "swine things" in horror fiction, isn't there? I guess if you can picture William Hope Hodgson crashing into Stephen King, something like this might come out. I rather like this one, but I don't want to say too much about it. It's best if you just come to it unprepared. I mean that very seriously. It's macabre, not horrific, unless you are of a particularly delicate dissposition or something.
It's really a feel-good yarn for the disenfranchised: the theatrical dead. Who says lichs and ghouls shouldn't have fun? Haven't they earned it? It's no wonder that Ann and jeff Vandermeer selected this for inclusion in their huge and encompassing The Weird anthology. Is it a horror story, or something altogether stranger and more esoteric? When I read this in , this one stood out to me as something special; something mysterious and altogether alluring in its breathtaking strangeness.
Even the title is oddly enchanting. And for all that "otherworldliness", there is about it the suggestion of very real, contemporary concerns: the great diaspora of peoples, the nebulous and mutable concepts of homeland and place in the world. It all manages to be terrible and beautiful at the same time, in a way that few people other than maybe Arthur machen or Angela Carter could manage. Really extraordinary, and while it's sad that I don't think anything else in the entire Books of Blood series comes close to this, at least we have this monument.
Jan 02, Alexis rated it it was ok. After an introductory story that's ripped off the Illustrated Man we get: 1. The Midnight Meat Train 2. A decent story involving a serial killer working for a, literally, underground organisation. Barker hits the brake before the train derails but that's it. A lighthearted comedic story about a failed attempt at haunting. Good, not great. Not exactly bad, but Barker tries so hard to come up with new ideas that he introduces us to an evil After an introductory story that's ripped off the Illustrated Man we get: 1.
This is luckily unoriginal and has some good moments, along with a few very naive spots. In the Hills, the Cities 1. And here we go. We start off with a great, inspiring title, right? Sadly, here Barker becomes unbearable: this story is built around an inconceivably moronic idea - worst of all, it seems like he struggled to come up with something so foolish no one would have thought of before. It was hard to believe I was reading this. How did he come up with this shit?
Is it the most obvious and worst ever, in all time, allegory for communism? Obviously, yes, it is. You can't really know until you read it, but what you have here is the most implausible and frankly, silliest, folk tradition anyone has ever conceived, pompously blown to literally gigantic proportions to make the simplest point. Several months later I noticed I had written "literary" instead of literally at the start. This frustrates me to no end. Apr 12, Rebecca McNutt rated it really liked it Shelves: horror. Great little collection of horror stories, definitely worth reading if you're into the horror genre.
They're creative, well-written and eerie, and really intriguing. My only complaint is that they don't seem to be very original. Nov 02, Mike rated it liked it. Not frightening but at least imaginative. Oct 24, Michael Jandrok rated it really liked it. Wanting to get a short-story collection into my Autumnal fascination with darker and more horrific fare, I chose to pick out an old paperback off of the shelf.
It came to market with some heady recommendations. Some of the stories were so creepily awful that I literally could not read them alone; others go up and over the edge and into gruesome territory It was a joyously gruesome riff on a classic theme updated with punk style and sexual energy.
The imagery of the film was startling, with fresh villains and an intelligent vibe. After learning that Barker, who both wrote and directed the movie, was also an author….. What I ended up with was the very book I am reviewing here, the first in a six-pack of paperbacks that would end up being republished in various formats as time went on. I seem to remember having a hardback volume that had at least the first 3 books anthologized, but I could be wrong.
I somehow parted with that tome at some point, but all is well. To be perfectly honest, I rather enjoy the old Berkley paperback pressings more than the later editions that brought the whole series together. I can remember thinking this was a pretty scary set of stories the first time I read them back in the day. Splatterpunk was a new thing back in the grand old '80s, and Barker was very adept at seeding his writing with lots of gore and buckets of blood. He also had a tendency to sprinkle some reasonably graphic sex into the mix, and that was a pretty big recommendation for his style as well.
I was really hoping that the tales would stand the test of time. Classic horror, when you can find it, is like running into an old friend. I can read Lovecraft and Bloch and Howard anytime. Even stories that I have read several times will still seem vital and alive to me. Would Barker be able to elicit the same reactions on a second go-round, or would the writing feel dated or tired?
The answer to that, I think, will have to be told story by story. Overall, though, this is a really good introduction to Clive Barker as an author. Younger readers would do well to find this as a starting point for his oeuvre. If you enjoy fantastic fiction, then Barker certainly deserves a place in your library. A young and fraudulent psychic sets out to fool a research scientist and gets more than he bargained for. Holed up on the upper floor of a supposedly haunted house, the bogus ghost whisperer finds himself a living canvas for the damned. He awakes to find himself trapped by a serial killer who has been practicing his craft of human butchery in the adjacent car.
He manages to kill the killer in a heated struggle, only to find that his waking nightmare has only just begun. The shade uses his best tricks and most effective haunts to no avail, Polo shrugs them off with nary a hair out of place. But he does, and it turns out that Jack is playing a very dangerous game with the little devil, trying to entice it to go beyond the boundaries of its carefully constructed magical rule book so that he can capture it and make the Yattering do his bidding. Who will prevail in this match of wills? Beware the turkey. He is almost immediately drawn into confrontation with his new students when he notices a schoolyard altercation while talking to one of the school psychologists.
The brawl is broken up, but not before Redman comes to the attention of one of the combatants, a youth called Lacey. Lacey has issues, deep seated issues, which only serve to confound Redman as he attempts to form a bond with the outcast boy. The story morphs itself quickly into a mishmash of ghosts and possession and a large, unusually clean pig. There are all sorts of strange sexual subtexts going on here, as Redman finds his new job to be not so much to his liking.
I found myself wanting a LOT more exposition from this story. The theater has always been a fine venue in which to place a scary tale, and this one does not disappoint. There are all sorts of things to be found here that will make more beautiful sense on the second, or even third, run through. Much like a script, this story reveals its genius as the layers are pulled away, the lines practiced with different inflections and cadences. Damn good stuff. What you have here is a tale of two men, uneasy lovers, who are on a vacation honeymoon to the back roads of Eastern Europe.
Our couple stumbles upon a battle between rural cities, one that occurs only every 10 years, and one which has a high level of ceremony attached to it. But this is no normal fight between friendly adversaries, but rather a continuation of a ritual war that has caused the cities to become ever larger and larger conglomerations of citizens strapped together to function as living, breathing giants.
I got a vague whiff of The Wicker Man while rummaging around in this story, but it was only a fleeting impression. For older fans like myself, these are fine comfort food scares that will satisfy the craving for metaphorical blood on the palate. You need these stories in your collection if you want to call yourself a horror fan. One other quick note: Barker is British, and he has a habit of slipping into common Britspeak even when a story is set in another venue.
Maybe only something a word freak like me might notice, but at least be aware of it. Take the dark trip with Clive Barker! You will enjoy it. Feb 26, Dreadlocksmile rated it it was amazing. Back in , Clive Barker made his name within the deeply competitive world of horror with the publication of the first three volumes of the macabre short stories 'The Books Of Blood'. Written in his spare time, he admits that he was not expecting them to sell really at all, let alone predict the public response that followed.
The release exploded within the horror literature genre, hailing Barker as an exciting and imaginative newcomer. Stephen King, already known as a master in the genre, wen Back in , Clive Barker made his name within the deeply competitive world of horror with the publication of the first three volumes of the macabre short stories 'The Books Of Blood'. Stephen King, already known as a master in the genre, went as far as to pronounce Clive to be "the future of horror".
The books won both the British and World Fantasy Awards, as the public lapped up the gore soaked pages. After this initial success, Barker followed with a final three volumes, creating a collective masterpiece of horror. His two omnibus's were later to be broken down, to be sold as individual books.
Barker was invited to be able to illustrate these covers, with his dark and twisted artwork. Here we have the first volume from this collection of six dark and haunting books. Released in their individual forms back in , this volume contains the following short stories: The Book Of Blood - 12 pages "The dead have their highway. They carve their stories on the walls and the flesh. Everybody is a book of blood; Wherever we're opened, we're red". This first opener pardon the pun , brings you a well-constructed and haunting tale to bring together all of the short stories and introduce the reader to the books of blood.
It forms a small taste of what is to come, whetting the appetite for Barker's tales of the macabre. This short was inspired and created around a sultry summer visit to New York in which Barker found himself lost on a subway at midnight. The tale is a bitter and twisted one, as we are treated to Barker's dark imagination and talent for setting down a vivid and disturbing tale. The story is quickly dropped into a festering pit of gore, with extreme mutilation and blood-spill dripping from each page. The tale concludes with a haunting ending, as we are treated to nothing less than pure Barker genius.
Here we have a short that unfolds a comical tale that will amuse and entertain. The storyline is simple yet packed with purpose. The twist ending is subtle and forms a nice little conclusion to the story. Barker offers up a disturbing and haunting tale of possession and dark corruption. The story bleeds paranoia as it slowly winds itself to the horrific conclusion, building up with heart-racing tension. This is one of those stories that will come back to haunt you time and time again. The story was later adapted in into the graphic novel 'Tapping The Vein - Book 1' where it was illustrated by Scott Hampton.
Even if the audience has just risen from the dead". This gripping story brings you a well-written tale that works upon an underlying suspense that gnaws at you from the inside. The story spirals to an awesome and dramatic twist, which will leave you dying to read more. And they're waiting in the hills". Barker's imagination runs wild here as we are confronted with this terrifying and impressive tale. Vividly described and cleverly constructed, this story will impress and amaze you with Barker's creation of the darkly fantastic.
This short will leave you truly shocked. One of my personal favourite from the whole collection. The story was later adapted in into the graphic novel 'Tapping The Vein - Book 2' where it was illustrated by John Bolton. The book includes a brief introduction by Ramsey Campbell which is a mere two pages long. This nicely sets you up to begin on this terrifying adventure into the darkly disturbing mind of Clive Barker.
This first volume screams a violent and unpredictable imagination that has been waiting to burst out on the page for a while. The books were moderately successful in Great Britain, but found wide critical acclaim in the United States. Mostly, she was fearless. She had a little brother; she liked to boss him around. In Massachusetts, the Holloways lived at first in a boardinghouse on Beacon Hill and then in a seaside cottage in Revere before settling in Cliftondale, in a house on Morton Avenue, where they installed indoor plumbing and replaced all the windows with stained glass.
Sadie had an orange tabby cat named Sandy Alexander MacTabish. She and her best friend, Pearl, put on plays together. It smelled of jasmine. An Irish family lived two doors away. After Hippolyte defeated Hercules, the strongest man in the world, he stole her magic girdle, which had been given to her by Aphrodite, the goddess of love. Without it, Hippolyte lost all her power and the Amazons became the slaves of men, bound in chains. They escaped only after pledging to live apart from men forever. They sailed across the ocean until they found an uncharted place they named Paradise Island.
There they lived, blessed with eternal life, for centuries—until, one day, Captain Steve Trevor, a U. Army officer, crashed his plane onto the island. She falls in love with him. Hippolyte consults the gods. After he recovers, she joins him at the headquarters of U. She takes dictation in Greek, which, more than once, nearly gives her away. Wonder Woman, newspaper strip, August 16, illustration credit 2. Later, the Holloways moved to Dorchester, south of Boston. Female education was, as yet, a novelty. Until the end of the eighteenth century, girls had not typically been taught even how to write.
In the new nation, ideas about educating girls began to change; in a republic, women had to know enough of the world to raise sons who could be virtuous citizens. Mount Holyoke was founded in Plenty of critics were on hand to warn its students not to get carried away with any fancy ideas about equality. On July 4, , during a celebration marking the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, C. From the time of Homer, an Amazon had meant a member of a mythic ancient Greek race of women warriors who lived apart from men.
By the end of the nineteenth century, some suffragists, following the work of male anthropologists, had come to believe that a land of Amazons—an ancient matriarchy that predated the rise of patriarchy—had, in fact, once existed. Wonder Woman founds an all-girls school, too: Wonder Woman College.
Others went to coeducational schools. In , 4 percent of Americans between the ages of eighteen and twenty-one went to college; by , that number had risen to 8 percent, 40 percent of which were women. Sadie Elizabeth Holloway as a student at Mount Holyoke in illustration credit 2. She was stern and stoic and tight-lipped. At Mount Holyoke, she tied her long, dark, wavy hair on top of her head, like a Gibson girl.
She wore lacy white dresses that fell to her ankles; she rolled the sleeves up past her elbows. She worked for the student magazine, the Mount Holyoke. She was bold; she was unflinching: she played field hockey. In , Woolley had a hand in making that campaign a nationwide effort, helping to found the National College Equal Suffrage League. A rT Holloway first row, left , on the staff of the Mount Holyoke, illustration credit 2.
The duties and pleasures of the average man interest and allure. Feminists disagreed. They wanted to separate sex from reproduction, so that sex, for women, could be, as it was for men, about pleasure, not sacrifice. An early feature will be a series of articles written by the editor for girls from fourteen to eighteen years of age. Society does not forgive this act when it is based upon the natural impulses and feelings of a young girl. It prefers the other story of the grape juice procurer which makes it easy to shift the blame from its own shoulders, to cast the stone and to evade the unpleasant facts that it alone is responsible for.
After the first experience the life of a girl varies. All these girls do not necessarily go into prostitution. For her emotional nature longs for caresses, to touch, to kiss. It is these and kindred facta upon which the WOMAN REBEL will dwell from time to time and from which it is hoped the young girl will derive some knowledge of her nature, and conduct her life upon such knowledge. Other subjects, including the slavery through motherhood; through things, the home, public opinion and so forth, will be dealt with. They expected to control their fertility, to forge relationships of equality with the men they married, if they chose to marry, and to rise to the top of their professions, whether or not they also chose to have children.
Quite how all this could be accomplished was less clear; apparently, equality with men required servants; much of early feminism was a fantasy of the wealthy, equality for the few. Marston and Holloway in illustration credit 2. She complained to the dean. Then she rode with Marston anyway. College girls all over the country followed the election avidly. The Mount Holyoke Equal Suffrage League sponsored a mock presidential debate, a torchlight parade, stump speeches, a mass political meeting, and a mock election.
Sappho had lived on the Greek island of Lesbos in the Aegean Sea, around b. Sappho of Lesbos had become the symbol of female love. When Mary Woolley accepted the presidency of the college, she arranged for Jeannette Marks, a literary scholar who was also a suffragist, to be offered a position in the English Department. They had met when Woolley was teaching at Wellesley and Marks was a freshman; they lived together for fifty-five years.
Students staged an original play called The Thirteenth Amendment , a musical comedy about a world without men: a feminist utopia. Later, much later, Sadie Holloway, a whip-smart tomboy from the Isle of Man, wrote a memo to DC Comics explaining what exclamations Wonder Woman, an Amazon from an island of women, ought and ought not to use. The coat had pockets specially sized to hide a fifth of whiskey. He liked rye best. He drank and he smoked; he swooned and he staggered. Hyde , William James explained that a man has both a public self, the sum of his performances, and a private self, the sum of his passions.
James was writing decades before either comic books or superheroes were invented, but his line of argument is no small part of why comic-book superheroes have secret identities: Superman his Clark Kent, Batman his Bruce Wayne, and Wonder Woman her Diana Prince. The distance between philosophy and pop is, really, remarkably small. Passing through the gates of Holliday College. Wonder Woman, newspaper strip, September 9, illustration credit 3.
James, a philosopher who had trained as a physician, taught the first course in experimental psychology ever offered in the United States. Hyde could be found by Dr. Wonder Woman, newspaper strip, September 14, illustration credit 3. He kept it as well stowed as the flask of rye he tucked into the pocket of his coonskin coat—until, later in his life, he spilled his secrets all over the pages of his comic books.
Psycho in his psychological laboratory. He is brilliant and dastardly. But he wanted Harvard to have a state-of-the-art psychological laboratory. To build it, he invited to the department a German psychologist named Hugo Miinsterberg. I, at the age of 50, disliking laboratory work naturally, and accustomed to teach philosophy at large, altho I could, tant bien que mal, make the laboratory run, yet am certainly not the kind of stuff to make a first-rate director thereof. Birds and monkeys were kept in iron cages six feet by four, rabbits and guinea pigs in pens twice as small, and mice in tiny hutches.
He also insisted, to no avail, that annex students ought to be allowed to attend his Harvard lectures, alongside Harvard men. She raised that money, only to be told by Eliot that he had changed his mind. In , the annex, instead of becoming part of Harvard, was incorporated as Radcliffe College. He liked to experiment on his students, especially on his female students. Despite teaching at Radcliffe, Munsterberg was notorious for his opposition to both female education and woman suffrage.
He believed in neither the intellectual nor the political equality of women. The tendency to learn rather than to produce pervades all the great masses of women. There was no question, for instance, of women serving on juries. It was an age of experiment, and of philosophy, applied. The historian Charles Homer Haskins insisted that knowledge is always partial. Royce, the philosopher, had a different notion. The experiments Munsterberg and Marston conducted together in the Psychological Laboratory in Emerson Hall and on their students at Radcliffe were designed to detect deception.
They wanted to tell truth from lies. To understand how the mind works—to discover the physical manifestation of truth and deceit —would be to know whose evidence was to be trusted, not by making a subjective judgment, the way the historian applied to a mass of evidence the intellectual skills of criticism and interpretation, but through observations made and tests developed.
Truthfulness—truth itself—was to be established not through discrimination but through observation.
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Miinsterberg had begun this research before Marston moved to Cambridge. Following work being done in Europe, he had devised a series of tests to measure what he believed to be indicators of deceit: the heat of the skin, the rate of the heartbeat, the speed of speech. Haywood pled not guilty. He was defended by Clarence Darrow, the most celebrated trial lawyer in the country. Miinsterberg visited Orchard in the state penitentiary in Boise. For seven hours, over two days, he subjected Orchard to nearly one hundred deception tests.
Before Munsterberg began his tests, he was sure Orchard was lying. Instead, he published an essay about the importance of psychological testimony in criminal court cases. He called into question the very idea of a jury: Why leave a finding of guilt or innocence to fallible jurors? The collection was reviewed by John Henry Wigmore, who was both the dean of Northwestern Law School and the author of the definitive four-volume Treatise on the Law of Evidence Search and X Perry Ment.
The jury, unsurprisingly, finds for the plaintiff. Miinsterberg believed in hierarchy, order, and Germany. When he returned to the United States, a Harvard alumnus, convinced that Miinsterberg was a spy, attempted to have him removed from the faculty. The last of the Moultons of Moulton Castle would be Dr. The price to get into a nickelodeon was almost never a nickel. Cambridge was a jungle of pits and cranes. On March 10, , the mauled and decapitated body of James B.
Dennehey, twenty-three, was found on the subway tracks under Harvard Yard. Holloway would have liked that; she adored anything Greek. In the Psychological Laboratory in Emerson Hall, Marston had been experimenting with machines that might tell truth from lies. There was no need to write dialogue, for instance, since movies had no sound. The work mostly involved thinking of a good story and picturing how it could be told by piecing together scenes shot on reels of film that could be threaded through a projector.
Each scene is developed and printed separately and the positives are all joined afterwards in their proper order with title and subtitles in proper place. In truth, he was broke. He designed an experiment to determine whether systolic blood pressure could be used to detect deception. Marston tucked each story into an envelope, gave it to the subject to read, told the subject to say something that could save his friend, and asked him to choose whether to do that by lying or by telling the truth.
He then attached the subject to a blood pressure cuff, or sphygmomanometer, affixed to a machine that recorded the readings on a graph paper. At the end of the questioning, Marston attempted to determine whether each subject was lying or telling the truth, using only the blood pressure readings, while the jury made the same determination from having watched the subjects and listened to them speaking. Out of cases, Marston was right in instances, or 96 percent of the time, while the jurors, on average, were right only about half the time. He invented the lie detector test. After that, he went to every motion picture he could.
I read the books on how to write scenarios; I visited the manufacturing companies, and, finally, I began to experiment myself. In a book called The Photoplay: A Psychological Study , Miinsterberg offered a theory of cinema at a time when cinema had hardly begun. He interviewed directors; he spoke to actresses. He explained the close-up. He explained crosscutting. Miinsterberg came to believe that there is no better psychological laboratory than a nickelodeon, in much the same way that Marston later came to believe that there is no better form of psychological propaganda than a comic book.
It remains a perfect secret to the town and a mystery to the spectator; and now as the jail door closes behind him the walls of the prison fuse and melt away and we witness the scene in the little cottage where his friend secretly met his wife and how he broke in and how it all came about and how he rejected every excuse which would dishonor his home. Hyde—and reveal, too, how the mind works, how a man sees and knows, remembers and forgets, feels and deceives? Marston took all this in with the air he breathed.
Maybe he even went to the movies with Miinsterberg. By the time of the contest deadline, scenarios had been submitted. The winner was announced in February It was written by William Moulton Marston. I am taking an A. Till the end of his days, he kept his Phi Beta Kappa key on his watch chain. He once had Harry G. Peter, the artist who drew Wonder Woman, sketch her wearing an academic cap and gown and lassoing a professor with a Phi Beta Kappa key.
He was awesomely cocky. He explained his research. You can see what a valuable thing it will be to me when I cross-examine a witness. The ideas in the plot itself were drawn from various incidents of personal experience here at college. Still, if Kennard was based on a real person, that person was Bill Marston: a high school football star whose high school won the state championships but who never appeared on any football roster at Harvard. The real reason why Kennard stopped playing football was because he got into trouble with the college office with his gambling debts.
That really happened to one of the players on the Harvard team. Marston fell into a depression in the fall of his freshman year and very nearly killed himself; part of what pushed him there might have had to do with football. Three of his teammates from Malden High School had gone on to spectacular college football careers; one was the captain of the team at Dartmouth. Not Marston. He claimed to have been asked, again and again, even as an upperclassman, to try out. Maybe Holloway thought he was a coward. Jack KennardCoward was cast, shot, and edited in less than two months.
Even his lies told the truth. A scene from Jack Kennard, Coward, illustration credit 4. Charles M. Seay has brought its good points to the front, and Thomas MacEvoy looks and acts the title role capitally. Two days after the film opened, a German U-boat sank the Lusitania off the coast of Ireland. More than eleven hundred people drowned, including more than a hundred Americans; four were recent Harvard graduates. And then, on Thursday, June 24, , an unseasonably cold day, Marston graduated from Harvard. In exercises held at Sanders Theatre, E. Beneath her tasseled graduation cap, she wore her hair in a bob, her curls cut above the nape of her neck.
Feminists in Greenwich Village had begun bobbing their hair in In , it was still radical. For convenience in disguising themselves when the police trailed them, they cropped their hair. When Holloway turned twenty-two, Marston gave her a book of poems written by the American poet Vachel Lindsay. Holloway always wanted poems for presents. She liked arguing about rules. Her father objected. To earn her tuition, she spent the summer selling cookbooks, door to door. Holloway was the first in her class to become a wife, at a time when only one in two Mount Holyoke graduates ever married.
She did, but she resented it. Then they moved to a two-bedroom apartment in Cambridge, on Remington Street. She tried to teach herself to cook, using a Fannie Farmer cookbook given to her by her mother-in-law. Boston University, founded in , had admitted women from the start; it was the first coeducational college in Massachusetts. But in , Holloway, with her bobbed hair, was one of only three women in her law school class.
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During a course in criminal law, when the topic was something like rape, the female students were asked to leave. In the fall of , his second year, he enrolled in Evidence with Arthur Dehon Hill.
The presidential election of turned on two questions: the war in Europe and woman suffrage. Wilson, who was running for a second term, advocated neutrality and remained opposed to a constitutional amendment guaranteeing women the right to vote. Supreme Court justice. Hughes urged American entry into the war.
Hughes began supporting woman suffrage. Some women supported Hughes, because of his position on suffrage; others supported Wilson, because of his position on peace. In the end, it was women voters who, by rallying behind the peace movement, gained Wilson a narrow victory: he won ten of the twelve states where women had already been enfranchised.
Without them, he would have lost. That principle, we believe to be of the greatest importance, and not to be put in jeopardy without tangible proof of personal misconduct, apart from the unpopularity of the views expressed. On the morning of December 16, , he woke up feeling uneasy and unsteady and walked more slowly than usual from his home at 7 Ware Street to Radcliffe Yard.
He entered the lecture hall. Marston may well have been there, acting as his assistant. Miinsterberg began to speak; he began to sway. In the middle of a sentence, he slumped to the floor. He had had a cerebral hemorrhage. He died within the hour. He was fifty-three. Paul and Burns fought, instead, for a federal constitutional amendment. New Women wanted to change the world. On April 2, a constitutional amendment to grant women the right to vote was introduced in Congress.
That same day, Wilson asked Congress to declare war. Then he went back to the White House and wept. Congress passed the Espionage Act in and the Sedition Act in ; both were aimed chiefly at socialists, anarchists, and pacifists Wilson had called for authority to censor the press as well; Congress struck that down by a single vote. Marston described his life during these years as a series of experiments: First experiment, teaching psychology at Radcliffe while still a Harvard undergraduate; result, unfortunate for the girls, who may have learned psychology, but not love.
Second experiment, studying law; result, unfortunate for the law, which gained a poor advocate. Third experiment, , War and Army. He filled out a draft card on June 5, , ten days before Congress passed the Espionage Act, and two weeks before the end of his second year of law school. I am still a little shaky about his findings, but I think they deserve a real try-out with real cases. Marston for the detection of deception. The results, Marston reported to Yerkes, were remarkable.
Colored woman, 31 years of age. Arrested six months ago for larceny of a ring and placed on probation on the strength of the testimony of a colored man from whom a ring was alleged to have been stolen. Defendant during the six months had not made restitution, as she had been ordered to do, and was suspected by the probation officer of having avoided her calls. Examination was to determine whether or not she stole the ring in the first place. Woman telling the truth as to the ring, having been given to her. Verification The judge dismissed the case, although probation officer advised six months further probation.
New evidence had turned up indicating that the colored man who first alleged that defendant stole ring was a disreputable character, etc. In each of the twenty cases, the judgment of the blood pressure machine, as read by Marston, was subsequently verified by other evidence. Many, including Alice Paul, had gone on hunger strikes and were being forcibly fed.
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Burns had been beaten and hanged from chains. In November, a delegation of suffragists, including a feminist cartoonist named Lou Rogers, had gone to Washington to plead with Wilson to let the picketers out of jail. Paul and Burns, they said, were being tortured. At the end of the month, Burns, Paul, and twenty other women were released.
In January , while Marston was in Washington, Wilson announced that he had decided to support a federal woman suffrage amendment. Yerkes also tried to secure Marston a position that would allow him to apply his work in the field. Edgar Hoover. Asked to hire Marston, the bureau demurred. Marston was exasperated. He subjected eighteen messengers to his deception test and reported that Subject 4, a man named Horace Dreear, was guilty. He began making arrangements for Marston to teach a course in military psychology to soldiers. This required Marston to leave his third year of law school without finishing his coursework, to which the dean reluctantly agreed.
In August, they took the bar exam together. Holloway got through it faster. Army School of Military Psychology. Psycho disguises himself as the ghost of George Washington in order to shout down the idea that women ought to be allowed to contribute to the war effort. Women should not be permitted to have the responsibilities they now have! Women will betray their country through weakness if not through treachery! Marston went to war.
Marston stayed home. Marston, second from left, at Camp Greenleaf in illustration credit 6. He instructed thirty-five soldiers to go into the room, one at a time, and either steal nothing or steal something and hide it in a nearby barracks. Fourteen officers, some of them lawyers, were to watch the soldiers as they entered and exited the room, follow them, and, eventually, hook them up to a blood-pressure cuff and question them.
Before being interrogated, they wrote confessions, which were then sealed until the completion of the experiment. She was an only child. Her father worked for the Georgia railroad. She was tough as nails and thin as a twig. In , when she was twenty-two, she worked on a suffrage campaign in Chicago. In , having left her husband, she started working as a librarian. In , she marched in a suffrage parade at the Republican National Convention in Chicago; one Chicago newspaper cartoonist depicted suffragists marching with their wrists in shackles, dragging balls chained to their feet, slaves to the men who ruled them.
She also believed in extra-body consciousness, vibrations, reincarnation, and the psychic nature of orgasm. Marston was twenty-five and far from his wife; Huntley was twenty-nine and divorced. They were together for six months. Marston was discharged from the army on May 9, , the day he turned twenty-six. Suffragists as slaves in a parade during the Republican National Convention in Chicago in illustration credit 7.
Marston went home to Cambridge. Soon, Holloway was pregnant. Marston had left her with an understanding that she ought to come whenever she liked. Marston enrolled together for two semesters of Psychological Laboratory with Herbert Langfeld. In the academic year, Holloway and Marston enrolled, once again, in the same courses, with the same professors. At the time, less than 2 percent of all lawyers in the United States were women. She traveled from town to town. She got to know the other traveling saleswomen; they always stuck together.
The experimental life of William Moulton Marston involved a great many schemes. In his last year of graduate school, Marston opened the Tait-Marston Engineering Company, with a machine shop and foundry in Boston and offices at 60 State Street. Its offices, too, were at 60 State Street. Her long, dark hair is pinned back, her wide eyes impassive; she wears a pale dress. In one shot, she is seated in a chair, next to Marston, who leans over her.
A blood pressure cuff is wrapped around her arm, and a strap is winched against her chest, just above her breasts. A black disk propped over one of her eyes blocks half of her vision. Marston administering a lie detector test to the secretary of his law firm, illustration credit 7. He had spent nearly ten years at Harvard. He had studied history, philosophy, psychology, and law.
He had earned three degrees. He liked to ponder the nature of evidence. He believed he knew how to find out who was telling the truth and who was not. He had become an excellent liar. Marston went to Washington. The professor walked across the room and opened the door. A young man entered. He wore gloves. In his right hand, he carried an envelope. Tucked under his left arm he held three books: one red, one green, and one blue. He said he had a message to deliver. He spoke with a Texas twang. He handed the professor the envelope.
While the professor opened the envelope, pulled out a yellow paper, and read its contents, the messenger, using only his right hand, drew from his pocket a long, green-handled pocketknife. Deftly, he opened the knife and began scraping his gloved left thumb with the edge of the blade. It met twice a week, in the evening, beginning in March There were eighteen students; all of them were lawyers. They had come to the lecture hall, a building at F Street, after either a day at the office or a day in court; many of them worked for the government.
Marston finished reading whatever was written on that sheet of yellow paper, said something to the Texan, and sent him on his way. Then, turning to his class, he informed his students that the man who had just left the room was not, in fact, a messenger at all; he was, instead, an actor, following a script written by Marston, as part of an elaborate experiment. Imagine, Marston went on, that the man who was here a moment ago has since been arrested and charged with murder. Imagine, too, that you have all been summoned as witnesses. Please write down everything you saw.
Eighteen lawyers picked up their pencils. In preparing this experiment, Marston had identified details the students could have noticed—the number and color of the books the messenger held, for instance, and that he held them under one arm, his left. After the students had written down all they had observed, Marston examined them, one by one; then he cross-examined them. Out of possible observable details, the students, on average, noticed only Everyone flunked. And no one, not a single student, had noticed the knife. Gunther had arranged for a messenger to enter a lecture hall, after which he had asked his students to report the details of the scene.
The time was p. The man was medium height, medium large. His hair was brown. He had a small brown mustache, no beard. He wore glasses, i. He had on an overcoat, of black cloth, and buttoned. He had on a dark suit. A soft hat, dark brown. No gloves. In his hands he carried cane, hat, and a letter. The cane was brown, with a black handle. On entering he did not knock. G, may I speak with you a moment? Come in. The visitor stepped forward and handed a letter, Instead, he collected their evidence and submitted it to juries. Gaining the right to vote had by no means led automatically to female jury service.
In , after much lobbying by women, six states changed their laws to allow women jurors. But by , women still did not serve on juries in thirty-one states, or in the territories of Alaska and Hawaii. In this research, Holloway helped. Holloway researched his answers. She worked so fast, she said, that she could dictate forty letters before lunch.
Wigmore agreed. Marston enlisted two other judges, too: Dr. Charles C. But what Marston was most keen to discover was whether women were competent as jurors. But nothing much came of it.
Marston lost interest in the subject—nothing held his interest for long. Brown had been shot to death in the front hall of his house. Francis, a dentist, told the police that Frye had killed Brown. During a police interrogation, Frye confessed to the murder. Shipping Board. Wood was defending Bowie to gain courtroom experience. Frye and Bowie were found guilty and sentenced to four years in prison. On March 11, , Frye pled not guilty to the charge of murder. Mattingly, twenty-two, had graduated from Georgetown Law School but had been unable to find legal work.
He was taking classes at night, toward a graduate degree in diplomacy and jurisprudence; during the day, he worked as a salesman. Jail, to meet Frye. Marston asked Frye if he would submit to the use of the lie detector; Frye agreed. Only when Frye saw that same story in the paper did he learn that Marston believed him innocent. Frye said he had been at the home of a woman named Essie Watson, in the company of a woman named Marion Cox. Essie Watson was too ill to appear in court; Mattingly and Wood requested a continuance; McCoy denied their request. Frye later said that she refused.
William M. Marston as an expert in deception. McCoy was skeptical; Marston, waiting with his blood pressure apparatus, restless. The prosecutor began to speak. If you object to it, I will sustain the objection. Mattingly made one request after another, trying to find a way to persuade McCoy to qualify Marston as a witness; McCoy denied each request. Mattingly asked whether a witness for the prosecution, a police officer named Jackson, might be subjected to a lie detector test. Again, McCoy denied his request.
Marston—I believe his thesis when he got his Ph. I am going to read them when I come back from my vacation. I see enough in them to know that so far the science has not sufficiently developed detection of deception by blood pressure to make it a useable instrument in a court of law.
Marston was the only authority on the subject? I shall be dead by that time, probably, and it will bother some other judge, not me. The jury, after deliberating for less than an hour, found Frye guilty of the lesser charge of second-degree murder. Of course, we did not expect any lower Court would take the responsibility of admitting the tests, but believed the time was ripe to carry the point up for a Supreme Court precedent.
Marston, Ph. Frye was experiment number six. Marston had staked his academic reputation on the Frye case. He expected the appeal to reach the U. Supreme Court and make him famous the world over. Bilbrey and U. Circuit Court of Appeals denied the appeal. We think the systolic blood pressure deception test has not yet gained such standing and scientific recognition among physiological and psychological authorities as would justify the courts in admitting expert testimony deduced from the discovery, development, and experiments thus far made.
United States is a landmark in the law of evidence and one of the most cited cases in the history of American law. United States is also one of the bigger mysteries in American legal history. Case law obliterates context, and experimental science repudiates tradition; their rise marked a shift away from the idea that truth can be found in the study of the past. The case dragged on through spring. But it was the bankruptcy of the third business he had launched in , a fabrics company called United Dress Goods, that got him arrested.
Marston was indicted by a federal grand jury in Massachusetts on December 1, A warrant was issued for his arrest. On Febru-ary 19, , a U. Marston was charged with two crimes: using the mails in a scheme to defraud, and aiding and abetting in the concealment of assets from the trustee in the United Dress Goods bankruptcy. He was arraigned on March 16, His arrest and arraignment were reported in Washington newspapers the month Mattingly and Wood filed their appeal. The publicity could hardly have helped their cause.
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Circuit Court of Appeals issued its ruling in Frye v. About the Frye verdict, Marston affected detachment. Supreme Court in proper form. The charges against him were dropped on January 4, Circuit Court of Appeals. Priscilla, within the lasso, is compelled to speak nothing but the truth.
And she smiles her sly smile. Her mother, Ethel, could not get her to stop crying. He came home drunk and hollering, stomping the snow off his boots. He opened the back door and threw the baby into a snowbank. Sanger ran outside, pulled Olive from the snow, and brought her inside.
He stayed there for two days. He had a temper as hot as the fires at the Corning Glass Works. He and his wife, Anne, had eleven children. Margaret, when she was only eight years old, delivered the youngest of them. Anne Higgins died at the age of forty- nine of tuberculosis, but Margaret and Ethel knew that she had died, really, of motherhood: she had been pregnant eighteen times in twenty-two years. Margaret left and Ethel Higgins in the s illustration credit Mary, the oldest daughter, went to work as a servant for a family named Abbott, taking care of a little girl named Olive, which is how Mary Olive Abbott Byrne got saddled with a very long name.
She hated it. Ethel, who had brown eyes and auburn hair and all the fury of her father, was even cleverer than Margaret. In , when he was nineteen and she was eighteen, they eloped. Instead, she went to nursing school and married an architect named William Sanger. By February , when Olive Byrne was born, Margaret Sanger had a baby of her own, and she had tuberculosis.
It contained morphine. Once, Ethel gave Olive so much syrup that she slept for two days straight; it took a doctor to wake her up. After a while, Ethel Byrne decided there was nothing to do but leave. She studied nursing at Mount Sinai Hospital. Married women were not allowed to train as nurses; she said she was single. She was lying. She had straight, jet- black hair, blue eyes, pale skin, and freckles.
She bit her fingernails until they bled. She played with paper dolls; she loved to make paper families, a tissue of fictions. All she could ever remember of her mother, after that, was the scratch. Olive and her brother, twelve and ten, were bundled off to two different Catholic orphanages: one for boys and one for girls.
Margaret Sanger sometimes lived there, too. Sanger had three children, and her marriage was falling apart. They lived in a world of free love, of heterodoxy, and of Amazons, breaking chains. Max Eastman edited the Masses; John Reed was a staff writer. She was also a member of the Heterodoxy Club. She got her first cartoon published after bringing it to the New York Call, a socialist daily. She specialized in suffragist publications like the Woman Citizen and the Suffragist.
Peter, pen and ink drawing. Another staff artist at Judge sometimes filled in for her. His name was Harry G. Peter, and he was the artist who, one day, would draw Wonder Woman. Wonder Woman was born in bohemia. In the title poem, an Amazonian girl tells the Amazonian queen that she has fallen in love with a man. On Paradise Island, Queen Hippolyte carves her daughter out of clay. In prewar, early-twentieth-century feminist fiction, women rule the world in peace and equality, until men come, threatening to bring war and inequality.
In Angel Island and Herland, men have to be taught that if they want to live with women—if they want to marry them and have children with them—they will be allowed to do so only on terms of equality. And for that to happen, there has got to be a way for the men and women to have sex, but without the women getting pregnant all the time. But she had a different word for that kind of thing.
The U. Because I believe that woman is enslaved by the world machine, by sex conventions, by motherhood and its present necessary child rearing, by wage-slavery, by middle-class morality, by customs, laws and superstitions. Because I believe that these things which enslave woman must be fought openly, fearlessly, consciously.
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John Reed raised money for her defense, but Sanger fled the country; she left her children, two boys and a girl, with Ethel Byrne. She also met Havelock Ellis, a doctor, psychologist, and theorist of sex. Ellis celebrated sexual candor, sexual expression, and sexual diversity. His book, Sexual Inversion , which had been banned, treated homosexuality with sympathy, as did his six- volume Studies in the Psychology of the Sex. To discredit the idea that women were without passion, Ellis argued that the evolution of marriage as an institution had resulted in the prohibition on female sexual pleasure, which was derided as wanton and abnormal.
Sanger was devastated. Olive Byrne was eleven, and living in a convent school in Rochester in January , when Margaret Sanger appeared in federal court in New York to face the charges against her for Woman Rebel. In February, the charges against her were dropped, the court believing that prosecuting a mother grieving the death of a five-year-old daughter would only aid her cause.
Can you afford to have a large family? Do you want any more children? If not, why do you have them? They paid ten cents to register. Sanger or Byrne met with seven or eight at once to show them how to use pessaries and condoms. Nine days after the clinic opened, an undercover policewoman posing as a mother of two came and met with Ethel Byrne, who discussed contraception with her. The next day, Byrne and Sanger were arrested. Byrne was found guilty on January 8. On January 22, Byrne took two hours off from her hospital work to attend a hearing.
The New York Times ran the Byrne story on its front page for four days in a row. On the second day of her hunger strike, she was brought back to federal court. Her lawyer attempted to secure her release through a writ of habeas corpus but failed. Byrne collapsed during the hearing, after which she spent the night at a prison called the Tombs. The fight is to go on. She compared her fate to the fate of women who die during abortions. Newspapers reported her vital signs daily. Sanger, who was not allowed to visit, said her sister was on the verge of death.
Byrne did. In Rochester, Sanger, hoping to help the cause, revealed to the press, for the first time, that her sister had two children. Sanger told reporters that Byrne had been preparing to bring her children to New York to live with her, and had finally gotten an apartment ready for them, but that this plan had been derailed by her arrest. None of this was true. Then she said she had come to Rochester to tell Olive what had happened to her mother.
No one had ever visited her before. At first the nuns had refused to let Sanger past the gates. It had taken Sanger three days and a lawyer to get in. At last the matter was referred to the Bishop who reluctantly agreed that she could see me in the presence of the Mother Superior. Olive thought she looked like a movie star. Later that year, Sanger starred in a silent film called Birth Control; it was suppressed. But a wonderful glow filled me so I thought I would cry, and I was afraid they might send her away if I did.
She did not, as the bishop feared, tell this little girl about birth control. Prison doctors began forcibly feeding her milk and eggs through a rubber tube. Sanger said that Byrne had been unable to resist the start of the feedings because she was unconscious at the time.
Byrne was the first woman prisoner in the United States submitted to forced feeding. Byrne was too weak to speak. Sanger sent the governor a telegram, begging him to pardon her sister. The governor, en route from Albany to New York, missed the telegram, but later that day, Sanger and her delegation met with him in New York. I will take the responsibility of guaranteeing that she will not violate the law if you will release her. Byrne was released from prison.
She had served ten days of a thirty-day sentence. Sanger, meanwhile, had started a new journal, the Birth Control Review; its first issue appeared in February For an art editor, Sanger hired Lou Rogers. Sanger before? Yess, I know Mrs. Sanger was found guilty on Friday, February 2, the day after Byrne was pardoned. Sentencing was scheduled for the following Monday.
She refused to pay a fine instead of going to prison. The day Margaret Sanger was released from prison, Ethel Byrne met her and brought her home. She thought her sister had wanted, all along, to nudge her out of the movement. In and , they went from Pennsylvania to Ohio to Kansas and back again, three shows a day. Olive sang in the chorus. Joseph Academy in Buffalo. She started studying to be a nurse. At St. For their opposition to the war, Max Eastman, John Reed, and other editors and writers for the Masses were indicted for conspiracy.